Artificial neural networks

Artificial neural networks were inspired by the architecture of neurons in the human brain. A simple “neuron” N accepts input from other neurons, each of which, when activated (or “fired”), casts a weighted “vote” for or against whether neuron N should itself activate. Learning requires an algorithm to adjust these weights based on the training data; one simple algorithm (dubbed “fire together, wire together”) is to increase the weight between two connected neurons when the activation of one triggers the successful activation of another. Neurons have a continuous spectrum of activation; in addition, neurons can process inputs in a nonlinear way rather than weighing straightforward votes.

Modern neural networks model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or and find patterns in data. They can learn continuous functions and even digital logical operations. Neural networks can be viewed a type of mathematical optimisation, they perform a gradient descent on a multi-dimensional topology that was created by training the network. The most common training technique is the backpropagation algorithm. Other learning techniques for neural networks are Hebbian learning (“fire together, wire together”), GMDH or competitive learning.

artificial neural networks

The main categories of networks are acyclic or feedforward neural networks (where the signal passes in only one direction) and recurrent neural networks (which allow feedback and short-term memories of previous input events). Among the most popular feedforward networks are perceptrons, multi-layer perceptrons and radial basis networks.

Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons, which loosely model the neurons in a biological brain. Each connection, like the synapses in a biological brain, can transmit a signal to other neurons. An artificial neuron receives a signal then processes it and can signal neurons connected to it. The “signal” at a connection is a real number, and the output of each neuron is computed by some non-linear function of the sum of its inputs. The connections are called edges.

Neurons and edges typically have a weight that adjusts as learning proceeds. The weight increases or decreases the strength of the signal at a connection. Neurons may have a threshold such that a signal is sent only if the aggregate signal crosses that threshold. Typically, neurons are aggregated into layers. Different layers may perform different transformations on their inputs. Signals travel from the first layer (the input layer), to the last layer (the output layer), possibly after traversing the layers multiple times.

 

Training of Artificial Neural Networks

Neural networks learn (or are trained) by processing examples, each of which contains a known “input” and “result,” forming probability-weighted associations between the two, which are stored within the data structure of the net itself. The training of a neural network from a given example is usually conducted by determining the difference between the processed output of the network (often a prediction) and a target output.

This difference is the error. The network then adjusts its weighted associations according to a learning rule and using this error value. Successive adjustments will cause the neural network to produce output which is increasingly similar to the target output. After a sufficient number of these adjustments the training can be terminated based upon certain criteria. This is known as supervised learning.

Such systems “learn” to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with task-specific rules. For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify images that contain cats by analysing example images that have been manually labeled as “cat” or “no cat” and using the results to identify cats in other images. They do this without any prior knowledge of cats, for example, that they have fur, tails, whiskers, and cat-like faces. Instead, they automatically generate identifying characteristics from the examples that they process.

 

Models of Artificial Neural Networks

ANNs began as an attempt to exploit the architecture of the human brain to perform tasks that conventional algorithms had little success with. They soon reoriented towards improving empirical results, mostly abandoning attempts to remain true to their biological precursors. Neurons are connected to each other in various patterns, to allow the output of some neurons to become the input of others. The network forms a directed, weighted graph.

Artificial neural networks consists of a collection of simulated neurons. Each neuron is a node which is connected to other nodes via links that correspond to biological axon-synapse-dendrite connections. Each link has a weight, which determines the strength of one node’s influence on another.

 

Connectionism in Artificial Neural Networks

Connectionism is an approach in the field of cognitive science that hopes to explain mental phenomena using artificial neural networks (ANN).  Connectionism presents a cognitive theory based on simultaneously occurring, distributed signal activity via connections that can be represented numerically, where learning occurs by modifying connection strengths based on experience.

Some advantages of the connectionist approach include its applicability to a broad array of functions, structural approximation to biological neurons, low requirements for innate structure, and capacity for graceful degradation.  Some disadvantages include the difficulty in deciphering how ANNs process information, or account for the compositionality of mental representations, and a resultant difficulty explaining phenomena at a higher level.

The success of deep learning networks in the past decade has greatly increased the popularity of this approach, but the complexity and scale of such networks has brought with them increased interpretability problems.  Connectionism is seen by many to offer an alternative to classical theories of mind based on symbolic computation, but the extent to which the two approaches are compatible has been the subject of much debate since their inception.

The central connectionist principle is that mental phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of simple and often uniform units. The form of the connections and the units can vary from model to model. For example, units in the network could represent neurons and the connections could represent synapses, as in the human brain.

 

Application of neural networks to computer security

Computer security can be divided into two distinct areas, preventive security and the detection of security violations. Of the two, a greater degree of research and emphasis has been applied to prevention, while detection has been relatively overlooked. This is a costly oversight as preventive measures are never infallible. To date the detection of intruder violation on computer systems is a field heavily dominated by expert systems.

However, the major drawbacks attributed to these systems including their heavy demand on system resources and their poor handling of the dynamic nature of user behaviour, have made their use infeasible. In practice, the effectiveness of intruder detection is heavily reliant upon the skills of the presiding system administrators and their knowledge of the behaviour of their users.

The present study approaches the problem from a pattern recognition point of view, where an artificial neural network is used to capture user behaviour patterns. It proposes that artificial neural networks are not only capable of outperforming its heavier expert systems counterparts but in many ways better suits the demands and dynamic nature of the problem. In exploiting the strengths of neural networks in recognition, classification and generalisation this research illustrates the effectiveness of the neural network contribution to the application of intruder detection.

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